Theories form the foundation of procedures and interventions in nursing. Nursing has adopted the application of both nursing and non-nursing theories. For nursing students, it is important to determine the application of nursing theories versus non-nursing theories. Nursing theories, complemented by the non-nursing theories, are used to develop models used in nursing. Nursing theories include need theory, unitary human beings theory, self-care theory, system model theory, interpersonal theory, transcultural nursing theory, and from novice to expert theory. Examining the nursing theories versus non-nursing theories helps the student to grasp the concepts behind the models used in nursing today.
When caring for the patients, nurses rely on the nursing theories to guide their actions. However, these theories are not enough to deliver the result to the required success. Consequently, some non-nursing theories are put into application with the nursing theories. One such theory is the Maslow’s hierarchy of need theory. This theory operates under the basis that man is a social being whose action is motivated by the need to care for himself, to be loved and appreciated. The components of the theory include psychological needs, safety needs, desire to belong, self-esteem, and self-actualization. During nursing care, the practitioner ought to be keen on how their actions contribute to the realization of these needs. The other important non-nursing theory used in the profession is general systems theory. This theory focuses on how to develop a system through the various components. This theory is applicable in creating a personal care plan.
A study of the nursing theories versus non-nursing theories is meant to highlight the nursing models and their use in the clinical interventions. The systems theory contributed to the development of the following models: Imogene King’s Systems Interaction Model, Betty Neuman’s Health Care Systems Model, and Dorothy Johnson’s Behavioral System Model. The third non-nursing theory that has significance in nursing is the change theory. This theory stipulates that as human beings grow, their needs also change. This change is dynamic, gradual, and it happens every day even without noticing. This theory recommends that the nursing practitioner ought to identify areas that need change, analysis of forces causing the change and those that are resisting the change, the methods that the change manifest through, how customs affect the change, how change is brought about, and the study of the change itself.
Development theory is commonly used in formulating nursing policies, interventions, and personal care plans. It is the fourth item under nursing theories versus non-nursing theories. According to this theory, the only constant thing in human beings is development. This process begins at inception and continues through death. The development theory identifies four main areas of development namely: biophysical development, psychosocial development, physical development, and emotional development. The nursing practitioners are required to take into account all these important areas of development when composing personal care plans. The development theory led to the development of Sigmund Freud’s Psychoanalytic Model of Personality Development and Erik Erikson’s Psychosocial Model. These two models focus on both the physical and psychosocial development of an individual. While Sigmund’s research centered on the physical aspect of human development, Erik chose to major on the psychosocial elements of development.