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Assignment: NURS6501 Advanced Pathophysiology Week 5 Discussion Cardiovascular Alterations

NURS6501 Advanced Pathophysiology Week 5 Discussion

Cardiovascular Alterations

At least once a year, the media report on a seemingly healthy teenage athlete collapsing during a sports game and dying of heart complications. These incidents continue to outline the importance of physical exams and health screenings for teenagers, especially those who play sports. During these health screenings, examiners check for cardiovascular alterations such as heart murmurs because they can be a sign of an underlying heart disorder. Since many heart alterations rarely have symptoms, they are easy to miss if health professionals are not specifically looking for them. Once cardiovascular alterations are identified in patients, it is important to refer them to specialists who can further investigate the cause.

Consider the following scenario:

A 16-year-old male presents for a sports participation examination. He has no significant medical history and no family history suggestive of risk for premature cardiac death. The patient is examined while sitting slightly recumbent on the exam table and the advanced practice nurse appreciates a grade II/VI systolic murmur heard loudest at the apex of the heart. Other physical findings are within normal limits, the patient denies any cardiovascular symptoms, and a neuromuscular examination is within normal limits. He is cleared with no activity restriction. Later in the season he collapses on the field and dies.

To Prepare

Review the scenario provided, as well as Chapter 25 in the Huether and McCance text. Consider how you would diagnose and prescribe treatment for the patient.

Select one of the following patient factors: genetics, ethnicity, or behavior. Reflect on how the factor you selected might impact diagnosis and prescription of treatment for the patient in the scenario.

By Day 3

Post a description of how you would diagnose and prescribe treatment for the patient in the scenario. Then explain how the factor you selected might impact the diagnosis and prescription of treatment for that patient.

Note: For this Discussion, you are required to complete your initial post before you will be able to view and respond to your colleagues’ postings. Begin by clicking on the “Post to Discussion Question” link and then select “Create Thread” to complete your initial post. Remember, once you click on Submit, you cannot delete or edit your own posts, and you cannot post anonymously. Please check your post carefully before clicking on Submit!

Walden NURS6501 Advanced Pathophysiology Week 5 Quiz

Question 1

A 51-year-old male presents with recurrent chest pain on exertion. He is diagnosed with angina pectoris. When he asks what causes the pain, how should the nurse respond? The pain occurs when:

Question 2

Which of the following lab tests will the nurse check to help diagnose heart failure and provide insight into its severity?

Question 3

A 72-year-old female has a history of right heart failure caused by a right ventricular myocardial infarction. Which of the following symptoms are specifically related to her right heart failure?

Question 4

A 56-year-old male presents to his primary care provider for a checkup. Physical exam reveals edema, hepatomegaly, and muffled heart sounds. Which of the following is of greatest concern to the nurse?

Question 5

A 20-year-old male underwent an echocardiogram to assess chest pain. Results revealed a congenital defect in papillary muscles. Which of the following would the nurse expect to occur?

Question 6

A 75-year-old obese female presents to her primary care provider reporting edema in the lower extremities. Physical exam reveals that she has varicose veins. Upon performing the history, which of the following is a possible cause for the varicose veins?

Question 7

Which is the most common type of congenital heart defect the nurse should assess for in infants?

Question 8

A 49-year-old male presents to his primary care provider reporting chest pain. EKG reveals ST elevation. He is diagnosed with myocardial ischemia. Which of the following interventions would be most beneficial?

Question 9

What factors make a patient prone to neurogenic shock? Neurogenic shock can be caused by any factor that inhibits the:

Question 10

A 15-year-old male who is allergic to peanuts eats a peanut butter cup. He then goes into anaphylactic shock. Which assessment findings will the nurse assess for?

Question 11

When a patient with left heart failure starts to have a cough and dyspnea, which principle should the nurse remember? Pulmonary symptoms, common to left heart failure, are a result of:

Question 12

When a patient asks the nurse what is the most common cause of myocardial ischemia, which statement is the correct response? The most common cause of myocardial ischemia is:

Question 13

A 42-year-old female is diagnosed with constrictive pericarditis. The nurse assesses the blood pressure for decreased cardiac output because of:

Question 14

A 22-year-old pregnant female presents for a fetal echocardiogram. Tests reveal small left atrium and mitral valve and an absent left ventricle and aortic valve. The diagnosis is hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS). The nurse will anticipate that the treatment for this defect is:

Question 15

When a person is in shock, a nurse remembers impairment in cellular metabolism is cause by:

Question 16

A 67-year-old female was previously diagnosed with rheumatic heart disease. Tests reveal lipoprotein deposition with chronic inflammation that impairs blood flow from the left ventricle into the aorta. Which of the following is the most likely diagnosis recorded on the chart?

Question 17

A 10-year-old male presents with fever, lymphadenopathy, arthralgia, and nose bleeds. He is diagnosed with rheumatic heart disease. While planning care, which characteristic changes should the nurse remember?

Question 18

A newborn experiences frequent periods of cyanosis, usually occurring during crying or after feeding. Which of the following is the most likely diagnosis the nurse will observe on the chart?

Question 19

A 28-year-old female presents to the ER reporting severe chest pain that worsens with respirations or lying down. She has a fever, tachycardia, and a friction rub. Based upon the assessment findings, the nurse determines the patient is experiencing:

Question 20

A 27-year-old male is admitted to a neurologic unit with a complete C-5 spinal cord transection. On initial assessment, he is bradycardic, hypotensive, and hyperventilating. He appears to be going into shock. The most likely mechanism of his shock is:

Question 21

An 8-week-old infant presents to her primary care provider for a well-baby check. Physical exam reveals a murmur, and an echocardiogram shows a large ventricular septal defect. If left untreated, what condition should the nurse discuss with the parents?

Question 22

A 20-year-old female is being admitted to the hospital with fever and septic shock. Which set of assessment findings would the nurse expect the patient to exhibit?

Question 23

A newborn is suspected of having coarctation of the aorta. Which of the following assessments would aid in diagnosis?

Question 24

A nurse is planning care for a patient in shock. Which principle should the nurse remember? During shock states, glucose uptake is usually:

Question 25

An infant undergoes an echocardiogram for a suspected heart defect. Tests reveal an opening in the middle of the atrial septum. What term would the nurse use to describe this defect?

Question 26

A newborn baby is severely cyanotic. An echocardiogram reveals transposition of the great arteries. A nurse assesses for which of the following, as it usually occurs with this defect?

Question 27

A 55-year-old male died of a myocardial infarction. Autopsy would most likely reveal:

Question 28

A 30-year-old female presents to her primary care provider with fever, cardiac murmur, and petechial skin lesions. She is diagnosed with infective endocarditis. When the patient wants to know what caused the disease, what is the nurse’s best response? The most likely cause of the disease is:

Question 29

A 50-year-old male was admitted to the intensive care unit with a diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction (MI). He is being treated for shock. His cardiopulmonary symptoms include low blood pressure, tachycardia, and tachypnea. His skin is pale and cool. The primary cause of his shock is most likely:

Question 30

Upon assessment of the patient, the nurse finds a widened pulse pressure and throbbing peripheral pulses. Which valve disorder does the nurse suspect?